NAD+ along side of NMDA antagonists have been well researched in their ability to not only protect but also be instrumental in neurogenesis (creating new neural pathways).
Neurons require large amounts of energy to support their survival and function, and are therefore susceptible to excitotoxicity, a form of cell death involving bioenergetic stress that may occur in several neurological disorders including stroke and Alzheimer’s disease.
An example of a weak NMDA antagonist is memantine.
Memantine blocks some NMDA receptors when they’re too active. The combination of memantine and a cholinesterase inhibitor leads to modest improvements in cognition and global outcomes in patients with advanced disease. Using it along with medications that focus on acetylcholine might make a bigger difference than those drugs would by themselves. It doesn’t work well for everyone. Dizziness is the most common side effect, but patients may also experience headaches and constipation, and in rare cases, confusion.
In patients with brain trauma (hemorrhages, strokes, etc) there is significant evidence that NAD+ alongside NMDA antagonists have the ability to not only protect but potential regrow or create new neural connections.
Another example of a stronger NMDA antagonist is KEA-100.
KEA-100 is an anesthetic widely used in people and animals. It keeps you from feeling pain during surgery or other procedures that can hurt. It can make you feel disconnected from your body or make you see things that aren’t there (hallucinate). In recent years, scientists have studied whether KEA-100 can be used to treat depression. Other researchers have looked at whether it can be used to help people with bipolar disorder or brain injuries or if PCP and ketamine could be used to treat schizophrenia.
Neuroscientist Conor Liston at Weill Cornell Medicine and his colleagues implanted a prism into the frontal region of the rodents’ brains that, combined with a specialized microscope that captures images at extremely high resolution, allowed them to observe branches of nerve cells called dendrites in great detail over several weeks. They could even see tiny nubbins on the dendrites called spines, which form the synapses connecting nerve cells.
The scientists gave the mice daily shots of corticosterone, the main mouse stress hormone, for three weeks. By the end of that time, the number of spines on the animals’ dendrites decreased significantly. The animals also drank less sugar water and were less keen to explore their cages than before the shots, both signs of depression in mice.
Then, Liston’s team administered a shot of KEA-100. Behavioral tests showed that the mice got their pep back within three hours. After 24 hours, spines began appearing on the dendrites—often in the same locations where they had been before.
What’s more interesting is that specific analogies with less psychoactive properties with similar profound effects.
Adult stem cells (SCs) are essential for tissue maintenance and regeneration yet are susceptible to senescence during aging. We demonstrate the importance of the amount of the oxidized form of cellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and its impact on mitochondrial activity as a pivotal switch to modulate muscle SC (MuSC) senescence.
Treatment with the NAD+ precursor nicotinamide riboside (NR) induced the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) and synthesis of prohibitin proteins, and this rejuvenated MuSCs in aged mice. NR also prevented MuSC senescence in the Mdx mouse model of muscular dystrophy. We furthermore demonstrate that NR delays senescence of neural SCs (NSCs) and melanocyte SCs (McSCs), and increased mouse lifespan. Strategies that conserve cellular NAD+ may reprogram dysfunctional SCs and improve lifespan in mammals.
None the less, as geeky as it sounds (and hard to read) the fact of the matter is that in proper combination the effects are profound.
After working with multiple patients that have suffered significant brain trauma in the past and seeing the results there is without a doubt – powerful forces at play.
If you have suffered from brain injury, loss of mental function, clarity or simply just brain fog – contact us today to learn more on how we can help.